Fermented apple juice extract had an antiproliferative effect in both cell lines, particularly in the LT97 cells, suggesting a greater effect on precancerous than cancer cells. However, detailed analysis of the nutrient content and antioxidant properties of the seeds and pulp has not yet been reported. Recent work in humans has moved toward a greater emphasis on examining mechanisms and biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk, in particular, oxidation and lipid metabolism. The fermentation products of the apple juice extract in combination with pectin included acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the latter of which was most significantly correlated with histone deacylation inhibition. These compounds are small, with molecular weights less than 300 Daltons, and are readily dispersed in the air due to their high vapor pressure. A recent animal study indicated that AP are potentially important in counteracting dietary prooxidants. Chemical composition of apple fruit, juice and pomace and the correlation between phenolic content, enzymatic activity and browning MartinaPersic MajaMikulic-Petkovsek AnaSlatnar RobertVeberic https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.04.017 Get rights and content Apple fruit, pomace and juice characterized by different phenolic groups. The influence of farming systems on the harvest of apple tree orchards and the chemical composition of apples S. Nominaitis1, V. M. Rutkoviene1, P. Vikelis 2 Key words: genus, scab, skin toughness, picking maturity, fruit quality Summary: Research of apple productivity and quality was carried out in organic and intensive 42. Total polyphenol content determination The total polyphenol content of CHE extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The effect was mediated by apple phenolics but particularly chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin (5 mol/L). Early work suggested a potential association between AP intake and reduced risk of coronary artery disease, lung cancer, asthma, and diabetes. Follow-up work with this model to further characterize the effects of the fresh apple extract demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of markers of cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and down regulation of the cell cycle in mammary tumor cells (cyclin D1 protein expression) (28). Oxidative damage appears to be an initiating factor in several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, due to disruptions in DNA, protein, lipids, and other cellular components by ROS. The composition of cider as determined by dominant fermentation with pure yeasts : Alwood, William Bradford, 1859-1946 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive The chemical composition of apples and cider. The synthetic mixture of polyphenols also inhibited growth, although less effectively, and isolated components were significantly less effective than either mixture. It was also found that the effect of apple procyanidins on apoptosis was enhanced by a known compound that inactivates polyamine oxidase, leading the authors to conclude that apple procyanidins might be considered as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer by these mechanisms. It is not known whether this is important under physiologic conditions, but it is an interesting mechanism by which AP might be related to glucose control in diabetes. The apple extracts and curcumin, but not other phytochemicals, significantly reduced the TNF-induced activation of NF-B by reducing proteasome activity, a known target in regulation of NF-B. Dietary antioxidants are of interest, because they add to the endogenous potential of the body to scavenge ROS and nitrogen-free radicals and directly counteract lipid peroxidation reactions. Based on this premise, a study was conducted in Brazil on 49 overweight women with high blood cholesterol levels to determine the effect of fruit intake on blood lipids and body weight (70). Apples and AP3, including juices and extracts, have been included in health-related studies around the world due to their rich content of varied phytochemicals. 2.1. The available data show preliminary but intriguing potential of AP to modulate some of these processes in animal models. Blanching of apple puree, on the other hand, increased apple juice turbidity by increasing the amount of . The estrogen-negative cells exhibited a greater sensitivity to the apple extracts than the estrogen-responsive model. Adapted with permission from (4). It is estimated that over 80 million American adults (1 in 3 and particularly adults older than 60 y) have one or more types of cardiovascular disease. The wide range of polyphenol content in whole apples and apple juice is depicted in Table 1 (4, 5). Composition of apple wastes used as raw materials; comparison of the elemental composition of the materials from the as-received apple waste and from the residue kept in air for 8 days; TGA and DTA curves for the pyrolysis of apple pomace under N 2 at 20 C min -1 . The findings of these investigators and many others suggest that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts in terms of a protective effect of AP on cancer. It has been proposed that assessment of total oxidant scavenging activity might overcome the inconsistencies observed in other assays. Among the various foods studied, apples were the only individual fruit associated with the protective association. Early research described an inverse association between AP consumption and asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including bronchitis and emphysema, as well as a general benefit to ventilatory function in healthy individuals as reviewed in (1). Interestingly, prolonged exposure to AP resulted in even greater antioxidant capacity for some compounds, suggesting that metabolic products formed over a period of time may have differing antioxidant capacities than the parent phytochemicals and, in some cases, improved potential. Thirteen pure compounds were identified as triterpenoids and tested for antiproliferative activity against human liver cancer cells (HepG2), as well as human breast cancer and colon cancer cells (MCF-7 and Caco-2, respectively). Others have worked to characterize the effects of individual compounds known to be present in AP. Overproduction and/or overexposure to oxidants in the body can result in an imbalance leading to cellular damage. This work proposes a potential mechanism by which AP, particularly metabolites related to AP exposure, might exert anticarcinogenic effects in the colon. A Systematically Searched Scoping Review and Research Perspective, COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the World: : Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change, Flavan-3-ols and Cardiometabolic Health: First Ever Dietary Bioactive Guideline, Nutrition, Immunosenescence, and Infectious Disease: An Overview of the Scientific Evidence on Micronutrients and on Modulation of the Gut Microbiota, High Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is Associated with Higher Physical Fitness in Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Gastrointestinal protection from drug injury, http://www.yvgsa.com/pdf/facts/USApple2010ProductionAnalysis.pdf, http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health, Perspective: The Paradox in Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products ResearchThe Source of the Serum and Urinary Advanced Glycation End Products Is the Intestines, Not the Food, Contribution of Biotransformations Carried Out by the Microbiota, Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes, and Transport Proteins to the Biological Activities of Phytochemicals Found in the Diet, The Effects of Blueberry Phytochemicals on Cell Models of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. The authors concluded that these compounds could be partially responsible for the anticancer activities associated with AP. Iodine solution, alcohol solution. Ferulic acid The next list of chemicals in an apple is Ferulic acid, belongs to a group of an organic compound called hydroxycinnamic acid. There was a concurrent and dose-dependent increase in expression of Bax, a proapoptotic protein and downward expression of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein. Several recent intervention studies have examined the effect of fresh apple consumption on oxidative markers in humans. In men, the risk reduction was 19% in the group consuming >54 g compared to no apple intake (34). Fresh apple intake (26/wk) tended to be protective but was not significant for a dose-response relationship. Many investigations have assessed the potential antioxidant effects of AP. Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution 30%. More than 4000 flavonoids have been identified and all share a common carbon skeleton structure (C6-C3-C6). Results of the study were presented in 2 reports, the most recent in 2008. aluminum oxide, a white powder that contains a 2:3 ratio of aluminum and oxygen atoms. Subsequent tests were conducted to determine if apple extracts (peel and flesh) and selected phytochemicals could attenuate this activation. It is speculated that environmental and lifestyle factors, such as reduced intake of dietary antioxidants, are contributing to the rise (51). Although the SCFA were not correlated with inhibition of growth in this study, it is known that SCFA can stimulate pathways of growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. The range of the isolated compounds with demonstrated activity was comparable to levels observed in human plasma in feeding trials. Apple feeding significantly reduced the concentration of the oxidative marker MDA in urine to levels lower than those in healthy control animals. Kern et al. (20) crushed and extracted juice from cider and table apples harvested in Germany to prepare several polyphenolic mixtures, including one extract from apple pomace. Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion in various environments. The cells were exposed to apple extracts, prepared from fresh fruit (assayed for total phenolic and flavonoid content) across several ranges from 0 to 60 g/L. Biochemistry or biological chemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Understanding and characterizing the bioavailability of AP in humans is important in examining their possible protective effects on colon cancer. A study in Oregon involved testing 6 healthy participants (3 men and 3 women) after they consumed 5 apples (flesh and skin, 1037 38 g) (39). In addition to clinical data, recent animal feeding and in vitro studies have aimed to examine the potential protective link between AP and cancer. There is growing evidence that dietary variables may be related to cognitive decline in normal aging and also influence the risk and course of neurodegenerative diseases of aging. An effect of AP on NF-B activity was observed in another cell line in a recent study by Davis et al. Histone deacylation inhibition is associated with reduced colon carcinogenesis. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism.Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Mechanistically, it is feasible that catechins or other polyphenolic components in AP may be inversely related to the risk of type 2 diabetes, possibly by preserving pancreatic -cell function via reduced oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. Therefore, the main objective of this current study was to determine the chemical composition, nutritional A self-administered FFQ was used to assess maternal diet at 32 wk of gestation. II. Apples increase nitric oxide production by human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: a new biological function for polyphenols with a catechol group? Apple juice concentrate may work by other mechanisms, including the ability to suppress overexpression of presenilin-1, which is linked to the production of amyloid peptide, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (63, 64). Flavonoids are further divided into different classes based on molecular structure, several of which are present in significant quantities in AP, including flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanidins as well as dihydrochalcones and hydroxycinnamic acids (3). The loss of bone mass is associated with osteoporosis and is viewed by some as a global epidemic. 3. Annurca apple fruits, Modulation of oxidative cell damage by reconstituted mixtures of phenolic apple juice extracts in human colon cell lines, Total oxidant scavenging capacities of common European fruit and vegetable juices, Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits, An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity, Phenolics from purple grape, apple, purple grape juice and apple juice prevent early atherosclerosis induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters, Absorption of dietary cholesterol oxidation products and their downstream metabolic effects are reducted by dietary apple phenols, Apple procyanidins decrease cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein secretion in Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes, Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic exzema, Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma, Fruit and vegetable intakes and asthma in the E3N study, Dietary intake of flavonoids and asthma in adults, Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults. A crossover study of ex vivo data examined the effect of a bolus of apple (600 g of homogenized unpeeled apples) in a small group of young healthy males in Italy (n = 6) (38). In addition, the extract downregulated several signal pathways involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, including PKC and enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Apple fruit sweetness is given by the sugar content (Aprea et al., 2017), and it is considered that weather conditions, culture technology, position, and exposition of the fruits in the crown influences this content (Campeanu et al., 2009).Apple fruits present high sugar content, which varies from 9.53 to 12.3% (Campeanu et al., 2009), 7.41 . Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. One recent investigation focused on isolating and identifying bioactive compounds in apple peel associated with antiproliferative activity (32). I thank Sue Taylor and Stacie Haaga for their helpful discussion and review. (48) studied the potential of 2 doses of procyanidin-rich apple polyphenol extract to attenuate disruptions in lipid membranes and lipid metabolism resulting from exposure to dietary cholesterol oxidation products. An extensive analysis of phytochemical metabolites in apple was reported by Cefarelli et al. 1 (4). Blood sampled at 1, 2, 3, and 6 h postconsumption was assayed for FRAP and plasma ascorbate and urate levels. Studies are presented below, grouped by disease states and/or disease processes when applicable. Polysaccharides extracted from mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.): antioxidant effect of ameliorating H. Predictors and characteristics of Rib fracture following SBRT for lung tumors. Previous studies on Monkey apple have reported the composition of an ethereal extract of the fruit stones . Although total daily apple intake was not reported in this small study, it is estimated that the average intake would not be much more than 1 small apple/d (149 g) based on a conservative speculated average bodyweight range of 6070 kg. A hospital-based, case-control study published in 2005 included over 6000 participants from various regions in Italy and examined the association between fresh apple intake and risk of cancer (14). Only 12.7% of the ingested compounds in cloudy apple juice reached the end of the intestine in unmetabolized form, whereas 22.3% were recovered as metabolites. A man made a genius ingredient label for popular fruits and revealed why the term 'chemical-free' is meaningless. Iso-octane. Alloy 28 is a high-alloy multi-purpose austenitic stainless steel for service in highly corrosive conditions. In another study, the same investigators used 2 breast cancer cell lines, including the MCF-7 cells as an estrogen-responsive model and MDA-MB-231 as an estrogen-negative model (30). In a separate study, Shaheen et al. Each group was provided guidelines for a moderate hypocaloric diet designed to reduce body weight at a rate of 1 kg/mo (deficit of 250 kcal/d). (17) used a well-established rat model of chemically induced colonic damage (using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) to examine alterations associated with colon cancer and to test the effects of AP. There is also inconsistency in the correlation between in vitro outcomes and in vivo antioxidant activity mediated by AP. Apples are generally thought of as being a good source of fiber. Author disclosure: D.A. Several ranking studies have been completed and the pros and cons of chemical methods used to assess in vitro antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables have been debated and will not be reviewed here. Shea et al. The variability might be attributed in part to the many types of apples and apple components studied in addition to varied reaction conditions, including pH, concentration, types of ROS, and other study conditions. Hamsters were provided with apples to approximate human intake of 600 g/d (~2.5 large apples) or 500 mL of juice/d. They observed an increase in FRAP and a correlated increase in plasma urate levels, leading them to speculate that fructose-mediated urate production might account for their observations. (23) recently reported that PKC activity was reduced by 50% in HT29 cells after 24-h exposure to apple extracts at a relatively high concentration (403 g/mL). A great deal of work has focused on dietary polyphenols, particularly the most abundant subclasses, including flavonoids (60% of all polyphenols) and phenolic acids (30% of total polyphenols) (2). After 24 wk, cumulative tumor numbers in groups receiving low, medium, or high doses of the extract were reduced by 25, 25, and 61%, respectively, and there was a dose-dependent delay in tumor onset. The fraction highest in catechin also protected cells from oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal protective effect at 3 h. The protective effect was associated with a corresponding increase in antioxidant activity and reduced lipid peroxidation per measurement of MDA. Anywhoo . The chemical composition of an apple includes: water - over 85% of the total mass; proteins and fats - about 1%; carbohydrate compounds - almost 10%; organic acids; alimentary fiber; vitamins: PP, A in the form of beta-carotene, group B, C, E, H, K; Their experiments tested for the effectiveness of various fruits in inhibiting ROS-induced production of ethylene from -keto--methiolbutyric acid. Their review included an overview of the positive association between AP and health benefits demonstrated in observational studies (1). This is of importance, because many flavonoids and dihydrocalchones are present in intact plant foods as glycosides with saccharide residues, but during processing and storage hydrolysis occurs, leading to the aglycone form. It has been proposed that an integrated approach incorporating antioxidant capacity values from several different assays in a validated statistical model might provide a more accurate assessment of the relative antioxidant capacity of foods (46). Given the increasing incidence of these 2 conditions, further study of the effect of AP on osteoporosis and diabetes is important to consider. The authors concluded that the high procyanidin content and metabolites in the apple extract might directly interfere with cholesterol absorption in addition to modulating lipids and lipid-related processes. Many recent studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of AP on critical processes in the etiology of disease at the metabolic and cellular level. New data have suggested a possible link between AP consumption and reduced risk of diabetes.